About stocks


Buying stocks means taking ownership or share in a corporation.

If you are a stockholder, you own an undivided interest in the assets of the corporation and may be paid a proportionate share of the company’s earnings in the form of dividends.

Stocks are usually purchased and sold in units called stocks.

A stock's value, or share price, moves up and falls based on how much people will pay for a share.

People will pay money for the stock if they expect the company will be successful. If it is, its stock value will increase.


How is the total amount you pay per share determined?

At first, set by investment banks during a company’s initial public offering (IPO), and is determined by the company’s value.

For example, if a $10 million company offers 1 million shares, its shares go for $1 each. But that’s simply the starting point.


The price of a share can go up and down over time

Stocks are generally regarded to be a riskier investment than bonds or cash.

Stock prices tend to fluctuate more sharply—both up and down—than other types of asset categories.

However, stocks can help you establish long-term growth in your overall financial plan.

History has repeatedly demonstrated that stocks, as an asset class, have outdone every other type of investment over long periods of time.


Be sure to consider a company before investing in its stock.

 You should understand its products or services, its market, as well as whether it sustains a sound balance sheet, cash-flow management, and competent directors and managers.

You should also consider analysts’ projected earnings estimates.


What is the reason that makes the stock price rise and fall?


There are many different factors, including the following:

How the company extending the stock is doing:

Good news from a company, such as a new product launch or exceeding quarterly financial projections, tends to make a stock’s price go up.

Bad news, such as a product recall or lawsuits against the company, generally can cause the price to send packing.

World events:

Major political shifts, natural disasters, wars, and social unrest can all touch on a stock’s price.

When people are uncertain about what’s going on in the world, they’re less likely to take on higher risks associated with stocks, so less money is put into the stock market.

The U.S economy:

When the government enacts policies that seem to help the economy, such as tax breaks to spur consumer spending, stock prices are apt to develop.

Policies that may hurt the economy, such as the Federal Reserve raising interest rates, can cause stock prices to go down.

Market conditions:

When people are optimistic about the economic system and investing more money, a bull market can occur.

During this time, stock prices go up faster than usual and people experience positive returns on their investments. 

But when investors are pessimistic about the economy, a bear market can ensue, which brings falling stock prices.

Supply and demand:

A company offers limited shares that are the supply. 

The demand is created by people who want to buy the stock.

When demand is high and supply is low (because shareholders are not selling), the stock’s price goes up.

When there are low demand and high supply, a stock’s price goes down.

If you want to be a savvy investor, you can’t simply watch the ups and downs of your individual stocks (collectively known as your portfolio).

You should monitor the market’s overall performance.


Stock exchanges

Stock exchanges are the places where stocks are purchased and sold.

Investors can measure the upward or downward trends of stock values by using The Dow, S&P 500, and NASDAQ Composite Index are stock indexes.

The Dow index consists of about 30 very large U.S. corporations. The S&P 500 index is 500 of the largest publicly traded U.S. corporations.

In order to be traded, a stock has to be listed on an exchange.

Different stocks list of different exchanges.

The stocks of around 3,200 companies are traded on the NASDAQ exchange.

There are a lot of Web sites where you can check stock prices for free.

Remember that the information from the stock markets is not posted in real-time.

Maybe there is a short time delay, often as much as 20 minutes.

These sites usually feature other information that can help you pull in investment decisions, such as interactive charts and recent company news.

Several daily newspapers also list the closing stock prices from the previous day.


Getting started

In order to buy or sell stocks, known as making trades, you must go through a licensed and trusted broker.

As a first step, you necessitate to set up a brokerage account by contacting a brokerage firm and filling out an application.

Your brokerage firm will charge you a service fee, every time you buy or sell a stock.

You can invest independently using an online brokerage firm.

These firms will give you access to research tools to facilitate you decide what stocks to buy, but will not provide advice or recommendations.

This access keeps service fees low.

Alternatively, you can invest with the guidance of a professional broker who will manage your wallet and give advice on what stocks you should invest in but this service typically comes with higher fees.

But before you invest in stocks, consider checking one of the websites offering tools to study, select, and track stocks.


How do you make money from the stock market?

Investors should know there is no guaranteed method for earning money with stocks.

But if you want your investments to pay off you should do a lot of work.

You should follow the financial news, use the indexes like Dow and S&P 500 to watch market trends, and thoroughly studying companies you want to invest in.

One way to make money from the stock market is to look for companies that pay a share, which is a payment given to shareholders based on the company’s profit.

The amount of your individual dividend payment is based on the number of shares you have.

So if the dividend pays $10 a parcel and you own 500 shares, you’ll receive a dividend payment of $5000.

You can take the money or reinvest it to buy more shares of the company.

The basic goal is to buy at a low price and sell at a high price.

The difference between your purchase prices and your sale prices is the profit you earn.

Keep in your mind, don’t buy a stock simply because it looks cheap.

Find stocks that are of good value, or even slightly undervalued (as recommended by your study), and buy as shares as you can.

Hold those stocks, observe their performance over time, and sell when the price is higher than you paid for it.

It looks easy, but it needs a strategy, diligence and time to be perfected the technique.

Several investors use a strategy called dollar-cost averaging, which can be executed as a “constant dollar plan.” 

by this strategy, dollar cost averaging means adding the same amount of money to an investment account on a regular basis.

By doing this, you buy fewer shares when the share cost is high, and more when the price is low.

This generally results in a lower average cost per share than buying a constant bit of shares at the same periodic intervals.

However, dollar-cost averaging does not guarantee a profit or protect against loss.

You should recognize that you will pay taxes on all the money you make in the stock market, whether you earn it from dividends or from capital gains.

The information incorporated herein is being provided as-is and without representation or warranty.

The enclosed information is not intended as planning advice, legal, tax, or financial.

Any discussion of tax or accounting matter herein (including any attachments) should not and may not be relied on by any recipient or reader.

The receiver/reader should consult his/her tax adviser, legal consultant, and/or accountant for a statement of tax and accounting rules applicable to his/her particular situation and for all other tax and accounting advice.

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